Nehemiah has served bot the Persian King Artaxerxes and God faithfully. From chapters 1-12, Nehemiah, with the kings' permission, has been using rebuilding, repairing and restoring the wall around Jerusalem as a means to repair, rebuild and restore the Jewish people's commitment, devotion, love, loyalty and obedience to God and God's Word. He has been recalled back to Susa, Persia, by the king. So, he left on a high because revival broke out in Jerusalem. Upon the reading of God's Word, these Jews, hearing it for the first time, repented, confessed their sins and signed a covenant of obedience to God. When he returns 12 years later in his 70s, everything that had been accomplished is now undone. He again, has to take quick and swift action to take these sands of sin by the people and help turn them into pearls for God.